Venice's Hidden Enemies: Italian Heretics in a Renaissance City (Studies on the History of Society and Culture)
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Martin offers a vivid re-creation of the social and cultural worlds of the Venetian heretics—those men and women who articulated their hopes for religious and political reform and whose ideologies ranged from evangelical to anabaptist and even millenarian positions. In exploring the connections between religious beliefs and social experience, he weaves a rich tapestry of Renaissance urban life that is sure to intrigue all those involved in anthropological, religious, and historical studies—students and scholars alike.
themselves. They talked back to 21. Nicolau Eymeric, Directorium Inquisitorum ... cum commentariis Francesci Pegnae ... in hac postrema editione iterum emendatum et auctum, et muftis litteris apostolicis lamp/etatum (Venice: Apud Marcum Antonium Zalterium, 1595), 430-431: "De modis decem haereticorum, quibus errores suos obtegere student." On Peiia's edition of Eymeric, see Edward M. Peters, "Editing Inquisitors' Manuals in the Sixteenth Century: Francisco Peiia and the Directorium inquisitorum
constructive action and a possible resolution of the conflict with the Protestants. While some hoped that this pope, who assumed the name Paul III, would be ablethrough a universal council or through compromise-to effect a reconciliation with the Lutherans, others looked to him as a man who would at last take decisive action in the repression of heresy. Paul himself, it turned out, was open-minded about the need for both institutional and theological change. And his first actions seemed largely
25. "Consilium delectorum cardinalium et aliorum praelatorum de emendanda ecclesia S.D.N. Paulo III iubente conscriptum et exhibitum" in Consilium Tridentinum: Diariorum Actorum Epistularum Tractatuum nova collectio, ed. Societas Goerresiana, vol. 12 (Freiburg: Herder, 1929), 131-145. On the behind-the-scenes work of Contarini, Pole, Sadoleto, and Giberti, see the works cited in note 10; Dermot Fenlon, Heresy and Obedience in Tridentine Italy; Cardinal Pole and the Counter-Reformation (Cambridge:
bridge between the two faiths. Indeed, because of Contarini's mediation, the Protestants and Catholics at Regensburg were able to agree, almost miraculously, on a doctrine of justification. But their talks broke down over the issue of transubstantiation, and the colloquy was immediately declared a failure by those unsympathetic to its goals. 30 With compromise between the Catholics and Protestants no longer a possibility, the position of the spirituali weakened quickly. The zelanti, it turned
Raccolta di scritti evangelici del secolo XVI (Rome-Florence: Claudiana, 1883), 2:112-122. Spiera's trial is located in ASV, Sant'Uffizio, b. 9, doss. "Spiera Francesco." For further information on Spiera and on heresy in Cittadella, see Giuseppe De Leva, Degli eretici di Cittadella (Venice: Grimaldo, 1873); and Zille, Gli eretici a Cittadella nel Cinquecento. The Spiera case generated considerable discussion in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe; see Celio Secondo Curione, ed., Francisci