The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion
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As America descends deeper into polarization and paralysis, social psychologist Jonathan Haidt has done the seemingly impossible—challenged conventional thinking about morality, politics, and religion in a way that speaks to everyone on the political spectrum. Drawing on his twenty five years of groundbreaking research on moral psychology, he shows how moral judgments arise not from reason but from gut feelings. He shows why liberals, conservatives, and libertarians have such different intuitions about right and wrong, and he shows why each side is actually right about many of its central concerns. In this subtle yet accessible book, Haidt gives you the key to understanding the miracle of human cooperation, as well as the curse of our eternal divisions and conflicts. If you’re ready to trade in anger for understanding, read The Righteous Mind.
www.MoralFoundations.org for updates on our research. 26. Boehm 1999. 27. Ibid. But see also the work of archaeologist Brian Hayden (2001), who finds that evidence of hierarchy and inequality often precedes the transition to agriculture by several thousand years as other technological innovations make it possible for “aggrandizers” to dominate production and also make it possible for groups to begin undertaking agriculture. 28. De Waal, 1996. 29. As described in de Waal 1982. Boehm 2012 tries
chapter 2. 72. McWhorter 2005; Rosenzweig 2009. 73. Arum 2003. 74. Stenner 2005, p. 330, concludes from her studies of authoritarians: “Ultimately, nothing inspires greater tolerance from the intolerant than an abundance of common and unifying beliefs, practices, rituals, institutions and processes. And regrettably, nothing is more certain to provoke increased expression of their latent predispositions than the likes of ‘multicultural education.’ ” 75. See Pildes 2011 for an up-to-date review
Malden, MA: Blackwell. Latane, B., and J. M. Darley. 1970. The Unresponsive Bystander. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Lazarus, R. S. 1991. Emotion and Adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press. Leary, M. R. 2004. The Curse of the Self: Self-Awareness, Egotism, and the Quality of Human Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ______. 2005. “Sociometer Theory and the Pursuit of Relational Value: Getting to the Root of Self-Esteem.” European Review of Social Psychology 16:75–111.
the University of Chicago (scholarly breadth), earned a master’s degree at the Harvard Divinity School (an appreciation of religion), and then spent a year teaching English in Japan (cross-cultural experience). For Jesse’s first-year research project, he created a questionnaire to measure people’s scores on the five moral foundations. We worked with my colleague Brian Nosek to create the first version of the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ), which began with these instructions: “When you
access to food, mates, and all the other things that make individuals (and their genes) successful in the Darwinian sense.36 The Liberty foundation obviously operates in tension with the Authority foundation. We all recognize some kinds of authority as legitimate in some contexts, but we are also wary of those who claim to be leaders unless they have first earned our trust. We’re vigilant for signs that they’ve crossed the line into self-aggrandizement and tyranny.37 The Liberty foundation