The Global Digital Divides: Explaining Change (Progress in IS)
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This book analyzes extensive data on the world’s rapidly changing and growing access to, use and geographies of information and communications technologies. It studies not only the spatial differences in technology usage worldwide, but also examines digital differences in the major world nations of China, India, the United States and Japan at the state and provincial levels. At the global level, factors such as education, innovation, judicial independence and investment are important to explaining differences in the adoption and use of technology. The country studies corroborate consistent determinants for technology usage for education, urban location, economic prosperity, and infrastructure, but also reveal unique determinants, such as social capital in the United States and India, exports in China and working age population and patents in Japan. Spatial patterns are revealed that indicate clusters of high and low technology use for various nations around the world, the countries of Africa and for individual states/provinces within nations. Based on theory, novel findings and phenomena that have remained largely unreported, the book considers the future of the worldwide digital divides, the policy role of governments and the challenges of leadership.
ICTs tend to be offset by 5–10 years. Even if the usage levels of a technology such as mobile phones become saturated and much more even worldwide, new questions arise about variation in the technology’s effectiveness, productivity, and social impacts. Two chapter cases are presented. Azerbaijan represents a developing nation, the government of which has promoted and invested heavily in ICT, leading a trajectory of many improvements but also challenges. South Korea constitutes one of the foremost
the PC and moving to adoption of Internet/broadband is often referred to as “leapfrogging,” which implies that the nation skipped the steps of more expensive PCs and the more cumbersome infrastructure of ﬁxed telephone networks, but rather leaped across those traditional technology steps and right to inexpensive mobile phones and Internet/broadband, such as China. Stage 3. “Belated” Adopters (“Laggards in Roger’s theory”) These countries are coming late to adopting ICTs. They have among the
to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. Printed on acid-free paper Springer-Verlag GmbH Berlin Heidelberg is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com) To Dadu, a blessed presence forever in my life, my parents,
applied for the world in Chap. 4, and in more detail for speciﬁc nations and for the continent of Africa in Chaps. 5–9, each chapter having a customized version of the general conceptual model. The reason we customize the models in those chapters is that the variables available are somewhat different at the state/provincial levels from nation to nation, while the African nations have a more © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015 J.B. Pick and A. Sarkar, The Global Digital Divides, Progress in
trajectory towards leadership as an e-society, the federal government collaborated and partnered with Estonian technology and ﬁnancial ﬁrms, which gave much more impetus to the changes (Dutta 2007). One indicator of success is that Skype originally appeared as an Estonian company, although it ended up as a Microsoft division. As Estonia’s e-society gained more attention, Scandinavian ﬁrms invested in Estonia’s ICT sector, helping to modernize it. Issues remain today including raising the national