The Expert Negotiator: Strategy, Tactics, Motivation, Behavior, Leadership
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Success in negotiation is not a matter of chance, but the result of careful planning and specialized skills. Some of these skills are inborn, others need to be learnt. In this book, the social scientist and economist, Professor Dr. Raymond Saner draws on his long years of experience as a negotiation adviser, teacher, trainer, researcher and university lecturer to show that two-thirds of negotiation practice is learnable.Yet, very few people are specifically trained in this everyday task. Without sacrificing scientific accuracy, Professor Saner offers a highly readable and fascinating guide to the subject. In doing so, he does not limit himself to the over-simplified tips generally put out on successful bargaining in every imaginable situation. Rather, he treats the different aspects of negotiation practice in a way that is useful to both academics and practitioners, such that the general laws and principles gradually become evident as and of themselves. The aim of this approach is to reveal the essence of negotiation through the experience of both the author and the reader. Such an understanding of the processes involved in negotiation is of far greater practical value than a mere collection of recipes with no discussion of the underlying theory, while the most comprehensive treatment of the theory without reference to its application in practice would be only half the story.Thus, the text is supplemented by a series of illustrative examples and case studies from the business, political, NGO and international organization arenas, plus some seventy figures and tables. With all this, the author has paid considerable attention to writing a text that is both entertaining to read and rigorous in content.
damage they cause is often more difﬁcult and painful still. 9 Foreword to ﬁrst edition So why not continue to negotiate, as long as the interests of both parties to the conﬂict are assured? The question this book thus addresses is how we can handle negotiation constructively, through peaceful means and to the beneﬁt of all the parties concerned. Acknowledgements This book is the fruit of many years of personal experience with conﬂict: in some cases I was able to contribute to the achievement
Cold War, or again the occasional minor war between life partners. In the words of Carl von Clausewitz (1780–1832), the Prussian general and strategist, ‘War is … an act of violence intended to force our opponent to do our will.’ (Clausewitz, 1987, p. 63). Negotiation works through persuasion, war uses coercion. Both parties do not even need to prefer war to an agreement around the negotiating table. But if a meeting cannot be achieved with acceptable conditions, a 43 Distributive bargaining
where are we to get hold of this information? Just as we will make every possible effort to hide our own bargaining position, so the other side is not going to divulge the information off his own bat. Our analogy to ﬂying on automatic is not too far off the mark, for what we have at our disposal may be likened to the navigation instruments in the pilot’s cockpit. A pilot reads his instruments carefully, while we study the environment in which we negotiate for signs and signals of all types. The
tension of unfamiliar surroundings quickly recedes into the background, and it doesn’t take more than a good homecooked meal from the old country and a glass of wine imported from Europe to create a relaxed, intimate atmosphere. In most cases this is sim- 70 Needs and motivation ply a friendly gesture on the part of the host, who is anxious to create a fertile atmosphere for the talks. But it may also be a highly sophisticated trap, as sometimes does happen. The guest drops all semblance of
his zone of possible agreement. Here the rules laid out in Chapter 2 on distributive bargaining apply. This does not however mean that the parties are going to confront one another across the table like enemies and stubbornly work on getting the other’s shirt off him. If that were our intention from the start, we could have spared ourselves all the trouble of the warming up period. Our negotiations have a much broader view, for we want them to lead to the best possible integrative solution. The