The Economics of Deforestation in the Amazon: Dispelling The Myths
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This provocative new book presents the results of twenty years of research on deforestation in the Amazon. By carefully observing the changing character of human settlements and their association with deforestation over such a prolonged period, the author is able to reject much of the 'perceived wisdom'. He skillfully dissects various models of deforestation and provides hard evidence on what is myth and what is reality. The book begins by challenging a hypothesis used by many scholars to explain deforestation. The 'turnover hypothesis' states that small farmers 'cause' deforestation by moving rapidly across newly forested land in an effort to make a living. Dr. Campari argues that in reality the process is far more complex. He reveals that it is actually the larger farms who are the main culprits of deforestation and that, in comparison, the impact of small farmers is marginal. He also challenges the belief that current deforestation, as in the past, is the result of distortionary government policies. The author proves that deforestation continues today because existing policies are based on outdated assumptions of regional development. He goes on to discuss the policy implications of his important findings and identify possibilities for controlling deforestation in the future.
present to respond to the questionnaires Campari 01 chap 01 18 2/6/05 10:14:30 am Occupation, changing migration dynamics, and deforestation 19 at the survey sites. In this case, migration is seasonal and depends on the specificity of the agricultural activity undertaken by the migrant. 2.3. DEFORESTATION The process of occupation and the shift in the pattern of migrations (from inter- to intraregional) has triggered a process of forest conversion into agricultural land, which has been a
region to urban centers. Integration can be regarded as a version of Manifest Destiny, an idea consistent with the orthodox economic approach to the region. The purpose of national integration was facilitated by the development of infrastructure and the creation of investment credits. Regional disparities came under sharp attack and the image of the developed Center-South was conceived as the achievable future of Brazil’s hinterlands. International forces played an important role in emphasizing
time without being challenged by the owner. These rights may appear to favor the establishment of relatively small farms. Up to 3,000 hectares of lands under federal control may be claimed by using the direito de posse and the attendant administrative and regulative procedures. In some areas of the Amazon, INCRA used the following rule: a claimant who lived on the land would get preference to obtain a title for up to three times the area of forest he cleared. Therefore, any squatter had an
Over time, deforested areas in plots that turned over (newcomers’ plots) tend to become relatively larger than those where ownership remains the same (survivors’ plots) Implies that displacement of Amazonian small farmers is high. Implies that newcomers are reconcentrating land to some extent. Implies that newcomers’ deforestation must be larger (in absolute and relative terms). Further, this condition suggests that different categories of farms have been subject to different farmers’
households: to test life-cycle hypotheses; (b) colonists who had recently arrived on the land as well as those who had been on the plot for a long time: in order to test hypotheses associated with the fixation and itinerancy of frontier colonists; (c) ‘southern’ and ‘other’ migrants: to test hypotheses regarding the impact of previous experience in agriculture in Southern Brazil on the performance of frontier colonists (e.g., regarding technology, community development, access to credit through