Structural Adjustment: Theory, Practice and Impacts
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Structural Adjustment: Theory, Practice and Impacts examines the problems associated with Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) and reveals the damaging impacts they can have. The book looks at how the debt crisis of the 1970's forced developing countries to seek external help and then reviews what constitutes as a standard adjustment programme, detailing the political, economic, social and environmental impacts of SAPs. The final section draws together theories and political responses and presents a case for alternatives to the programmes.
by no means certain – see discussions on this in chapter 5), the lack of a viable economic strategy for achieving socialist political goals will mean that leftist governments may well end up ‘managing neo-liberalism’ by default – providing a slightly enhanced social safety net and yet doing little to challenge the prevailing patterns of income and resource distribution or the dominant attitudes towards society and politics. In the light of such arguments, many on the left are suspicious of
as to how far these changes represented (1) a capitulation to market forces and neo-liberal ideology, (2) a temporary search for ways of accommodating changing interna-tional circumstances or (3) a redefinition and refining of socialist forms of economic organisation which would respond favourably to the problems of the state-led strategy. To some, then, the reform process of that time represented a real attempt to find ways of tackling the limitations of the state-socialist model without simply
them-selves for an investing bourgeoisie, by transforming their own role into a provider of industrial estates, factories and whole industries. In some cases, such as Nkrumah’s Ghana and Nyerere’s Tanzania, it took the form of joint ventures with foreign investors, total state ownership, and widespread nationalisation (Engberg-Pedersen et al. 1996). In the case of Nigeria, various decrees and legislation were enacted to foster an indigenous bourgeoisie (Nafziger 1993). These policies soon became
between ‘developed’ and ‘developing’ countries; • SAPs need to be set within a framework of theories and discourses about development rather than being analysed in atomistic, technocratic terms; • SAPs are spatially specific and differ according to ‘local’ contexts. They should not simply be treated as monolithic despite the universal assumptions which underpin them. This applies to both the formulation and impacts since states, markets and societies are locally contingent; • SAPs are also
countries. One of the first results of the human face of adjustment was Ghana’s Programme of Action to Mitigate the Social Costs of Adjustment (PAMSCAD). Similar projects were set up in Peru (Laurie 1997), Sierra Leone (Zack-Williams1997), Ivory Coast, Gambia, Guinea, Mauritania and Senegal (Ravenhill 1993:36). PAMSCAD is the best known of all the SDA programmes. It was instituted by the government of Ghana in 1987, following the economic recovery programme (ERP). The government adopted PAMSCAD