Regionalism in World Politics: Regional Organization and International Order
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The past five years have witnessed a resurgence of regionalism in world politics. Old regionalist organizations have been revived, new organizations formed, and regionalism and the call for strengthened regionalist arrangements have been central to many of the debates about the nature of the post-Cold War international order. This book brings together the many different institutions and ideas to be found under the label of "regionalism"; it places the revival of regionalism in a broader historical perspective; it asks whether there are common factors behind the revival of regionalism in so many different parts of the world; and it analyzes the cumulative impact of different brands of regionalism on international order. Leading specialists take a critical look at recent trends towards the new regionalism and regionalization, assessing their origins, their present and future prospects, and their place in the evolving internationla order. As well as concentrating on specific regions, the book looks at the theories of regionalism, the balance between regionalization and globalization in the world economy, the relationship between regional organizations and the United Nations, and the relationship between the revival of regionalism and questions of identity and nationalism. The past five years have witnessed a resurgence of regionalism in world politics and an increasingly important role for regional institutions. This book provides a timely and authoritative analysis of recent trends towards the new regionalism and regionalization, assessing their origins, present and future prospects and place in the evolving international order.
regional positions in inter national institutions or negotiating forums. On the other, they can be developed to secure welfare gains, to promote common values, or to solve common problems, especially problems arising from increased levels of regional interdependence. In the security field, for example, such co-operation can range from the stabilization of a regional balance of power, to the institutionalization of con fidence-building measures, to the negotiation of a region-wide security
states within its sphere of influence and sets limits on the permissible range of domestic policy options.17 2. EXPLAINING REGIONALISM IN WORLD POLITICS The theoretical analysis of regionalism conventionally begins with those theories that were developed explicitly to explain the creation and early evolution of the European Community.18 This literature Paul Taylor, International Organization in the Modern World. The Regional and Global Process (London: Pinter, 1993), esp. ch. 4. 16 John Ruggie,
and the ‘growth triangle’ between Singapore, Jahore, and Indonesia, areas which may or may not fall within the boundaries of existing nation states.7 As for globalization, the notion of an all-encompass ing process is contradicted by the fact that of the 25 per cent of world investment flows which go to the developing world, fully two-thirds goes to just ten developing countries.8 A large propor tion of the world’s population remains more or less untouched by the forces of globalization said to
within the context of an East Asian grouping or a broader Asia-Pacific context, which would include North America. Suspicions of the intentions of the USA, Japan, and China on the part of other countries would seem to preclude significant progress within a wider forum.38 In spite of the agree ment at the Bogor APEC summit of November 1994 to create an FTA by 2020, considerable disagreement over the specifics of trade liberalization remains. The only real sign of movement has been in the limited
air strikes against the Bosnian Serb gun positions around Sarajevo, should such acts be asked for. Clearly, however, the Secretary-General and the Security Council-authorized Protec tion Force (UNPROFOR) did not wish to surrender UN opera tional control over the situation. Nonetheless the UN-NATO exchange seemed to demonstrate, at least formally, that, as US Permanent Representative on the Security Council Madeleine Albright said, ‘the United Nations and the alliance can co-operate together’.77