Poverty and Inequality in Middle Income Countries (International Studies in Poverty Research)
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This collection offers a timely reassessment of viable ways of addressing poverty across the globe today. The profile of global poverty has changed dramatically over the past decade, and around three-quarters of the poor now live in middle income countries, making inequality a major issue. This requires us to fundamentally rethink anti-poverty strategies and policies, as many aspects of the established framework for poverty reduction are no longer effective. Featuring contributions from Latin America, Africa and Asia, this much-needed collection answers some of the key questions arising as development policy confronts the challenges of poverty and inequality on the global, national and local scale in both urban and rural contexts.
Providing poverty researchers and practitioners with valuable new tools to address new forms of poverty in the right way, Poverty and Inequality in Middle Income Countries shows how a radical switch from aid to redistribution-based social policies is needed to combat new forms of global poverty.
Though there is widespread consensus that almost all major development interventions in Lesotho failed to produce the intended outcomes, he argues that the development agencies continue to justify more interventions with the same erroneous assumptions that led previous plans to fail. A serious limitation of this conceptual apparatus is that it predetermines how to overcome the shortcomings in development interventions. Ferguson deals with the two most common assumptions that depoliticize
Van Doorslaer, E., O. O’Donnell, R. P. Rannan-Eliya, A. Somanathan, S. R. Adhikari, B. Akkazieva, C. C. Garg, D. Harbianto, A. N. Herrin, M. N. Huq, S. Ibragimova, A. Karan, T. Lee, G. M. Leung, J. R. Lu, C. W. Ng, B. R. Pande, R. Racelis, S. Tao, K. Tin, K. Tisayaticom, K. Trisnantoro, C. Visasvis and Y. Zhao (2005) ‘Paying out-of-pocket for health care in Asia: catastrophic and poverty impact’, EQUITAP Project Working Paper no. 2. Wagstaff, A. (2002) ‘Poverty and health sector inequalities’,
post-tax/-transfer scenario, where policies of taxation and transfer may redistribute incomes (Wilkinson and Pickett 2010: 184). Starting with the latter, it is increasingly recognized that redistribution through taxes and transfers is a legitimate option for reducing inequality and that MICs should be able to raise sufficient domestic revenue to carry out such redistribution (ODI 2004; Sumner 2012). In a study comparing the high-inequality continent of Latin America to the more equal countries
the central argument of this chapter that politics matters for development and especially for a reduction in poverty and inequality. The policy import of the analyses above will be considered from both domestic and international dimensions. At the domestic level, there is a need for a new approach to politics. As against the dominance of liberal democracy, which the international development agencies and developed countries have been promoting, there is a need for social democracy. The need for
informal settlers to the modern city (‘the right to the city’) – and reduced socio-spatial segregation. The alternative is ‘vertical integration’ – increased state control and improved access for external businesses to the informal settlements. While informal settlement upgrading must always be understood in relation to the wider urban space, infrastructural systems and natural environments, this chapter will deal less with the macro dimension and focus more specifically on issues of