Oral Anatomy, Histology and Embryology
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New edition of a now classic textbook covering oral anatomy, histology and embryology suitable for dental students and candidates for post-graduate dental examinations.
Kanagawa, and the editor of the Journal of Dental Research. Mast cells are difficult to demonstrate in the dental pulp as they are fragile and destroyed during processing for histology. There is an intimate relationship between the immune and neural systems. Following pulp injury, nerves release a number of neuropeptides and other molecules that participate in the immune response. In animal experiments removing the sympathetic innervation to the pulp increases the number of lymphocytes present
proceeded to the point where the fibril loses its characteristic structure. The time taken to degrade collagen intracellularly is not known, although about 30 minutes has been suggested (a time similar to that required for synthesis). Evidence suggests that biochemically the internal degradation of collagen involves not matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 but acid phosphatase and cathepsins. In addition, cell surface located alkaline phosphatase and MMPs may be involved in the process of
extends from the mesial fossa over the mesial marginal ridge on to the mesiolingual surface of the crown. Viewed buccally, the crown is nearly symmetrical, although the mesial Fig. 2.33 Mandibular second right premolar. A = occlusal surface; B = buccal surface; C = lingual surface; D = mesial surface; E = distal surface. profile is more curved than the distal. The buccal surface is markedly convex in all planes. From the lingual aspect, the entire buccal profile and the occlusal surface are
canine fossa. The dental pulp may be exposed in this area by caries or restorative cavities that are extended interproximally. The root canals diverge but are usually straight individually and taper evenly from their origin to the apical foramina. In cross-section, the root canals are generally round. With age, the general shape of the pulp cavity remains the same but its dimensions, particularly the height of the pulp chamber, are reduced. In cross-section the root canal is oval until the
HISTOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY Fig. 3.20 Diagrammatic representation of palatal and pharyngeal muscles. (a) Posterior view, (b) Medial view. A = tensor veli palatini B = levator veli palatini C = palatoglossus D = palatopharyngeus E = auditory (pharyngotympanic or Eustachian) tube F = pterygoid hamulus G = musculus uvulae H = salpingopharyngeus muscle I = superior constrictor muscle. b a lateral side of the cartilaginous part of the auditory (pharyngotympanic) tube. From its origin, the fibres