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C. Donald Ahrens and Robert Henson combine expert content in weather, climate, and earth science with the interactive experience you expect from Cengage Learning. Grounded in the scientific method, this reader-friendly and highly visual book shows you how to observe, calculate, and synthesize information as a budding scientist, systematically analyzing meteorological concepts and issues. Specific discussions center on severe weather systems, such as tornadoes, thunderstorms, and hurricanes, as well as everyday elements, such as wind, precipitation, condensation, masses and fronts, and the seasons. Events and issues dominating today's news cycles also receive thorough attention, and include analysis of Superstorm Sandy, the Oklahoma tornadoes, recent findings from the US National Climate Assessment and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and more. Whether you choose a bound book or eBook, METEOROLOGY TODAY, 11th Edition is a dynamic learning experience packed with end-of-chapter summaries, key terms, review questions, exercises and problems, live animations, web links, and more to carry your learning to atmospheric heights!
satellites to monitor weather is not restricted to observing clouds. For example, there are satellites that relay data communications and television signals, and provide military surveillance. Moreover, satellites measure radiation from the earth’s surface and atmosphere, giving us information about the earthatmosphere energy balance, discussed in Chapter 2. The infrared radiation measurements, obtained by an atmospheric sounder, are transformed into vertical proﬁles of temperature and moisture,
Review Questions for Thought Problems and Exercises Edward Abbey, Desert Solitaire — A Season in the Wilderness 141 142 CH A PTER 6 ❂ Clouds, spectacular features in the sky, add beauty and color to the natural landscape. Yet, clouds are important for nonaesthetic reasons, too. As they form, vast quantities of heat are released into the atmosphere. Clouds help regulate the earth’s energy balance by reﬂecting and scattering solar radiation and by absorbing the earth’s infrared energy. And,
cloud. Apparently, the buoyancy for the rising air comes from the latent heat released during condensation within the cloud. This process can occur in cirrocumulus clouds, producing cirrocumulus castellanus. When altocumulus castellanus appear, they indicate that the mid-level of the troposphere is becoming more unstable (destabilizing). This destabilization is often the precursor to shower activity. So a morning sky full of altocumulus castellanus will likely become afternoon showers and even
(CFCs), have collectively been shown to have an effect almost equal to that of CO2. Look at Fig. 2.12 and notice that both CH4 and N2O absorb strongly at infrared wavelengths. Moreover, a particular CFC (CFC-12) absorbs in the region of the atmospheric window between 8 and 11 µm. Thus, in terms of its absorption impact on infrared radiation, the addition of a single CFC-12 molecule to the atmosphere is the equivalent of adding 10,000 molecules of CO2. Overall, water vapor accounts for about 60
Xenon Xe 0.000009 Chloroﬂuorocarbons (CFCs) 0.00000002 0.0002 *For CO2, 385 parts per million means that out of every million air molecules, 385 are CO2 molecules. †Stratospheric values at altitudes between 11 km and 50 km are about 5 to 12 ppm. 5 6 CH A P TER 1 FO CU S O N A S P E CIAL TO PI C A Breath of Fresh Air If we could examine a breath of air, we would see that air (like everything else in the universe) is composed of incredibly tiny particles called atoms. We cannot see