Marx's Economic Manuscript of 1864-1865 (Historical Materialism Book)
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Marx s only full draft of Volume III of "Capital" was written in the "Economic Manuscript of 1864 1865." The Volume III that we know was heavily edited by Engels. It has been a long-standing question in Marxian scholarship whether or not there are significant differences between Marx s original manuscript and Engels s edited version. Marx s manuscript was published for the first time in German in 1992 in the "Marx/Engels Gesamtausgabe," Section II, Volume 4.2, but this important manuscript has not previously been translated into English. The publication of this English translation of Marx s original manuscript is thus an important event in Marxian scholarship. English-speaking Marxist scholars can finally compare Engels s Volume III with Marx s original manuscript and evaluate for themselves the significance of the differences."
measurement. In actual fact the whole of the fixed capital is advanced for production. It must be advanced all at once. Although only an aliquot part of the value of the machinery, for example, is transferred to the product, the whole of the machinery is needed to produce the product. The total value of the machinery must therefore be advanced for production, although it is only transferred to the product piece by piece in a series of turnover periods.) The objective character [Bestimmung] of the
discovered by analysis, absolutely no specific relation between surplus-value (or the excess of price over the cost price) and any particular constituent of the capital advanced can be perceived. It appears as the fruit of the whole of the capital. The surplus-value presents itself to us as something that springs forth equally from all parts of the capital. ‘The capitalist’, says Mr. Malthus, ‘expects an equal profit on all parts of his capital’. In fact, in the above example, where there is
capital.) The law that the rate of profit rises and declines in direct proportion to v/C, if there are no countervailing circumstances, implies that a certain portion of v, 100 for example, is the purchase price of a certain number of working capacities [Arbeitsvermögen], or the wage for a certain number of workers, so that if 100 is the wage for 100 workers, 200 is the wage for twice as many, etc. Since s = s′v, and with s′ remaining constant, s′v or s will rise and fall in direct proportion to
450 and then to 350. The change in s′, and therefore also in s, is the same, since the variable capital is originally of the same magnitude as was assumed in the previous paradigm. The change in the value of c has as a result the greater effect. Apart from this, paradigm B) does not differ from paradigm A) in its underlying assumptions. C falls continuously, and more rapidly than v. v/C grows here, because though v falls, C falls still more quickly. s/C grows for three reasons, first because s
finger being a trifling matter. A working man’s living and prospects depend so much on his fingers, that any loss of them is a very serious matter to him. When I have heard such inconsiderate remarks made, I have usually put this question: “Suppose you were in want of an additional workman, and two were to apply, both equally well qualified in other respects, but one had lost a thumb or a forefinger, which would you engage?” There was never a hesitation as to the answer’.51 These manufacturing