Markets in Historical Contexts: Ideas and Politics in the Modern World
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Presenting a much-needed corrective to the model of the "free market", authoritative contributors make historically-informed, interdisciplinary inquiries into the nature of market involvement in social, cultural and political relations. They examine critical thinkers, social movements and organizations and the ways in which they have influenced market relations from the eighteenth century to the present. The volume recreates those critical traditions and reform movements which sought to negotiate a path between the free market and the Marxist utopia of a society without markets.
marketplace effectively. Overcoming this asymmetry of information would reorder consumer culture and make it more rational and scientific for the overall benefit of society. The rationale for consumer protection that would inspire the establishment of the Consumers’ Association in 1957 was born.41 In the United States during the inter-war years, the political meanings of consumption and the status of the consumer-as-citizen were extended and radicalized no less than in Great Britain. Both
society. He believed the origins of the Terror to lie in Roman-Gallican fanaticism. During the Revolution Say’s was accordingly among the most virulently anti-clerical and anti-Christian voices among the writers for La D´ecade, an attitude exemplified by his view of, and love for, Gibbon’s work.59 At some point after 1815 he planned to write a book that would show the damage done to humanity by religious belief. One of his notes states that ‘religions will be replaced by industry as a centrifugal
associations, he was in part following major changes in the political landscape in Germany where guilds had been abolished and replaced by voluntary associations. The revolution of 1848 marked a turning point in the debate between rival organizational models for reforming society. Associations, rather than guilds, were now seen in accordance with the vision of a reformed economy and society. As the historian Hans J¨ager has argued, ‘by the late 1860s, economic liberalism and the idea of free
progressivism which warrants closer analysis. Inspired by late nineteenth-century thought, ranging from pragmatism to the teachings of the German historical school, a new generation of progressive thinkers ushered in a thoroughgoing revision of the hallowed teachings of utilitarianism, empiricism and rationalism. They renounced the epistemological and ethical grounding of nineteenth-century liberalism which had provided the intellectual impetus for moral reform and regulatory intervention along
campaigns for health insurance and city planning see Sch¨afer, American Progressives, pp. 79–188. 162 Axel R. Sch¨afer Two conceptions of progressive democracy Historicizing the market, relativizing morality, rejecting rights-oriented reform, reinterpreting the social and ethical implications of industrial capitalism, and rejecting statism were the main components of the emerging progressive theory of democracy and its interventionist agenda. The goal of progressives was to uncover the social