Kant's 'Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Aim': A Critical Guide (Cambridge Critical Guides) (Paperback) - Common
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The essays in this 2009 volume discuss the questions at the core of Kant's pioneering work on the philosophy of history.
edifice we may assert no mean rank. Perhaps among them every individual might fully attain his vocation in his lifetime. With us it is otherwise; only the species can hope for this. 12 Völkerbund Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Aim 17 of nations (Foedus Amphictyonum),b from a united might and from the decision in accordance with laws of its united will. As enthusiastic as this idea appears to be, and it has been ridiculed as such in Abbé de St. Pierre or Rousseau (perhaps
with in a possible experience and is, therefore, “transcendent” with respect to the latter. In the first Critique, Kant’s appealed to the Platonic republic and a constitution that provides for “the greatest human freedom according to laws that permit the freedom of each to exist together with that of others” as examples of such ideas (A 316/B 372–3); but his focus was on the “transcendental Ideas” (the soul, the world, and God), which arise from extending certain concepts of the understanding to
toward eternity.”24 Our vocation is to develop toward perfection. This development is possible only if we think of it as an eternal development. The entire value of our being consists in this. As Spalding puts it: My worth and my happiness should consist only in this, namely, that the supreme demands of truth, shall alone guide my actions, unanaesthesized by the tumult of the passions and the selfish desires, that the pure feeling (Empfindung) of propriety should be my real and authentic
beings, but he rarely takes notice of women, and then not very favorably. 94 Good out of evil 95 Without this competition we would enjoy an idyllic pastoral existence of ease and idleness. But envy and our insatiable desires for property, honor, and power force us to develop our natural abilities, which would otherwise remain hidden and useless. Nor is that the end of it. If at first only threats of punishment prevent us from destroying one another, we eventually develop our inherent ability
might be attracted to kiss its hem” (quoted by Emil Fackenheim, “Kant and Radical Evil,” University of Toronto Quarterly 23 , p. 340). chapter 6 The crooked timber of mankind Paul Guyer i. “from such crooked timber as humankind is made of nothing entirely straight can be made” In the Sixth Proposition of the essay Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Aim (1784) Kant famously states that “From such crooked timber as humankind is made of nothing entirely straight can be made.”