Introducing Philosophy of Science: A Graphic Guide
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What do scientists actually do? Is science “value-free”? How has science evolved through history? Where is science leading us? Introducing Philosophy of Science is a clear and incisively illustrated map of the big questions underpinning science. It is essential reading for students, the general public, and even scientists themselves.
Gender stereotyping actually begins in the cradle and accumulates through childhood, adolescence and adulthood to discourage women and encourage men to adopt those kinds of thinking and motor activities necessary for skills in scientific, mathematical and engineering work. Not surprisingly, less than a quarter of US scientists are women. What was it again? “The blokes shall inherit the Earth”? Women’s struggle to break into science can be seen as a parallel with their struggle to break into
universalism and disinterestedness. Do We Trust Scientists? But this picture of truth-loving and truth-seeking scientists working for the benefit of humanity is rather at odds with the public conception of science and scientists. Most people are not “anti-science”. We recognize the potential that science has for making our lives healthier and easier. But recent research has shown that most people do not trust scientists and are concerned with potential harmful side-effects of science.
efficiency that favours high temperatures and the allocation of resources to big industry. Work done at ordinary temperatures is by definition inefficient. Both nature and the non-Western world become losers in this new definition. For example, the monsoon – transporting millions of tons of water across a subcontinent – is “inefficient” since it does its work at ordinary temperatures. Similarly, traditional crafts and technologies are designated as inefficient and marginalized. Assumptions of
multi-layered activity. No single and simple description of science can reveal its basic nature. No romantic ideal can describe its real character. No sweeping generalization can uncover its real dimensions. Do Scientists Understand Science? Until now, scientists have had little or no understanding of how science actually works in practice. Scientists have misunderstood science in a number of important ways. • They have had a rather romantic notion of scientific method which, they are taught
“false” belief with sociological cause or use a rationalist cause to explain a “true” belief. 4. The models of explanation of SSK are applicable to sociology itself. In its early phases, the Strong Programme was seen as truly radical and subverting of science. Science as Social Construction Certain sociologists of science argue that science is socially constructed and not determined by the world or some “physical reality” out there. These scholars are called “Constructionists”.