Images of Medieval Sanctity: Essays in Honour of Gary Dickson (Visualising the Middle Ages)
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This volume's essays together provide a rich investigation of the idea of sanctity and its many medieval manifestations across time (fifth through fifteenth centuries) and in different geographical locations (England, Scotland, France, Italy, the Low Countries) from multiple disciplinary perspectives.
institutionally ambiguous position until 1405 when their ofÀcial rule was Ànally approved by the pope. When Munio of Zamora produced his rudimentary guidelines or Ordinationes, he did not do so because he wanted to control penitents or because he had a consistent plan concerning spiritual and social aspects of religious lay life. He produced the Ordinationes because the laywomen of Orvieto asked him for them, as he states in the text: “The aforementioned sisters requested that the venerable
physical form is an external signiÀer of inner character.2 And so in later medieval art, the blessed are beautiful and the damned are ugly, clarifying for viewers the moral opposition between the two. This is why, even though they are separated from each other stylistically by two centuries, Cimabue’s famous portrait of Saint Francis painted on the transept wall of the lower chapel in the basilica in Assisi is in every way the formal antithesis of the hideous Satan glaring menacingly from a
Moritz in Halle. See Michael Stuhr, “Symbol und Ornament in der Schmerzensmanndarstellung des Conrad von Einbeck,” in Skulptur des Mittelalters: Funktion und Gestalt, ed. Friedrich Möbius and Ernst Schubert (Weimar, 1987), pp. 243–54. 11 See Richard Kieckhefer, Unquiet Souls: Fourteenth Century Saints and their Religious Milieu (Chicago, 1984); Aviad M. Kleinberg, Prophets in their Own Country: Living Saints and the Making of Sainthood in the Later Middle Ages (Chicago, 1992); and the literature
Flagellation of Christ on the reverse (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, inv. nr. 1914.13.175). 43 Susan Verdi Webster, Art and Ritual in Golden Age Spain: Sevillian Confraternities and the Processional Sculpture of Holy Week (Princeton, 1998). 44 Largier, Lob der Peitsche, p. 90. 152 mitchell b. merback companies’ ranks augured a shift in character and, eventually, in purpose. Some groups seem to have swiftly outpaced clerical controls, and the once-orthodox Italian processions slowly
repression and radicalization, presaged the more sensational—and sensationalized—episode of 1348–49. Amidst rumours of plague, but in most places prior to its onset, bands of Áagellants began a pan-European 45 In the rites of the second-wave Áagellants, the reading of the Heavenly Letter ended with a genealogy of the movement, connecting it to recent events. The complete text of the letter is preserved in several sources and may date back in its essentials to a sixth-century Latin text; the