Humanism and Education in Medieval and Renaissance Italy: Tradition and Innovation in Latin Schools from the Twelfth to the Fifteenth Century
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The claim, central to many interpretations of the Renaissance, that humanists introduced a revolution in the classroom is refuted in Robert Black's masterly survey, based on over 500 manuscript school books. He shows that the study of classical texts in schools reached a high point in the twelfth century, followed by a collapse in the thirteenth as universities rose in influence.
(), ; Law (b), –. This important point about the supplementing of the Ars minor for non-native Latin speakers was current in the later nineteenth century: see Reichling (), xiii; Specht (), . The Italian elementary school curriculum chosen to represent each part of speech and questions are asked about it in particular, providing a full exercise in parsing; general grammatical definitions are introduced in explanation of particular questions about an individual
governed word and its case: e.g. possessive genitive, genitive of quality, etc.; moreover, his inconsistent approach extended mainly to verbs and nouns. (See Percival (), –.) Medieval grammarians developed a uniform and universal theory of governance in which the keystone was always the governor, not sometimes the governor, at other times the governed. Petrus Helias’s theory of syntax was apparently indebted to William of Conches, and both seem to have drawn on an earlier Magister Guido:
academic curriculum, offering a new vision and treatment of the entire topic of Latin syntax; Alexander, in contrast, was providing a clear and systematic textbook for the lower levels of the school hierarchy, albeit not for absolute novices. The syntactical part of Doctrinale is divided into two sections, the first of which treats governance (ch. ). Here the organizing principle is case: parts of speech and constructions governing the nominative (vv. –), genitive (–), dative
‘differs from a grammar like that of Francesco da Buti in that it dispenses with the explanatory concepts and the modistic terminology; it also makes sparing use of the terms suppositum and appositum’.424 This statement, although accurate, can result in a misleading impression. In the first place, not all versions of Guarino dispensed with the explanatory concepts derived from French logical philosophy of language: for example, Plimpton MS includes the following: (r) per naturam cause
authenticity, which had previously been questioned. Reichling (), lxxxvii; Thurot (), . Reichling (), lxxxvii–lxxxviii; Thurot (), . 690 Reichling (), lxxxviii–lxxxix. Reichling (), liv–lvii. The fifteenth century and the far from disinterested claims of Italian humanist educators themselves.691 Graecismus too continued in school use during the fifteenth century, albeit perhaps without the enhanced cachet enjoyed by Doctrinale. A French thirteenth-century