Human Trafficking Around the World: Hidden in Plain Sight
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
This unprecedented study of sex trafficking, forced labor, organ trafficking, and sex tourism across twenty-four nations highlights the experiences of the victims, perpetrators, and anti-traffickers involved in this brutal trade. Combining statistical data with intimate accounts and interviews, journalist Stephanie Hepburn and justice scholar Rita J. Simon create a dynamic volume sure to educate and spur action.
Hepburn and Simon recount the lives of victims during and after their experience with trafficking, and they follow the activities of traffickers before capture and their outcomes after sentencing. Each chapter centers on the trafficking practices and anti-trafficking measures of a single country: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Niger, Poland, Russia, South Africa, Syria, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Examining these nations' laws, Hepburn and Simon reveal gaps in legislation and enforcement and outline the cultural norms and biases, societal assumptions, and conflicting policies that make trafficking scenarios so pervasive and resilient. This study points out those most vulnerable in each nation and the specific cultural, economic, environmental, and geopolitical factors that contribute to each nation's trafficking issues. Furthermore, the study also highlights common phenomena that governments and international anti-traffickers should consider in their fight against this illicit trade.
Department of State, 2008). Until November 2008, Article 127.1 of Russia’s Criminal Code read: “Trafficking in persons, i.e., the buying-selling of a person or other actions committed for the purpose of such person’s exploitation in the form of recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of such person—shall be punishable by a term of imprisonment of up to 5 years.” This language was deemed confusing to law enforcement, since the wording created uncertainty as to whether the
(2012). Introduction to UKHTC. Retrieved January 23, 2009, from Serious Organized Crime Agency: www.soca.gov.uk/about-soca/about-the-ukhtc. Townsend, M. (2011). Target brothels or sex trafficking in UK will rise. The Guardian, February 5. Retrieved September 17, 2011, from www.guardian.co.uk/law/2011/feb/06/sex-slave-trafficking-brothel-crackdown. UKHTC. (2008). About the UKHTC. Retrieved January 23, 2009, from United Kingdom Human Trafficking Centre: www.ukhtc.org. U.S. Department of State.
trafficking victims repatriated to Thailand is probably only the tip of the iceberg. In 2010 and 2009, 88 and 309, respectively, were repatriated with help from the governments of the Bahrain, China, Malaysia, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, the United States, Vietnam, and Yemen (U.S. Department of State, 2009, 2010, 2011). Thai citizens accounted for 64.5 percent of trafficking victims identified in South Africa in 2005 and 2006. In
2008b, 2010; Hughes, 2006).1 Within Iran there is little comprehensive field research on the methods and number of Iranian persons trafficked, though there has been some research conducted on the status and forms of human trafficking that affect its citizens. One such study reveals that Iranian females are most commonly trafficked to Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) (Fehresti, 2010). The victims who are taken to Pakistan are typically from poor families. They marry in Iran and are then
Other areas of labor were jari embroidery factories (1 boy), school hostels (1 boy), carpet looms (1 boy), and trucker helper (1 boy) (Aliperti, 2009). Forced labor is not the only form of human trafficking in India. Adults and children are also trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation. As in labor trafficking, those most vulnerable are persons of the low castes, specifically women and girls. Young boys are also vulnerable, some as young as 10 years old. As HIV/AIDS becomes more of a