How Revolutionary Were the Bourgeois Revolutions?
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the monarch was derived from the germanic tribes. whether these innovations originated in Roman law or were brought by the barbarians themselves remained a widely debated issue in the work of other French thinkers like Jacques Cujas or, by the early seventeenth century, their scottish followers like sir Thomas Craig.52 Craig was legal adviser to James vi of scotland before his accession to the english throne in 1603, and the author of an important work on the feudal law, dedicated to James, which
death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.6 starting from the threat to economic activity, Hobbes foresees escalating chaos leading to the collapse of civilization itself; but the resulting “state of nature” is a possible outcome, not the existing state of aﬀairs. industry, cultivation, navigation, and so on—that these things have existed means there was a time before they were threatened. Hobbes is not therefore invoking the consequences of human nature, but of human
“feudalism.” Feudalism was a term in transition during the enlightenment. as we have seen, by the first half of the eighteenth century, it had become the established term to describe the legal relationships increasingly dominant across europe between the fall of the Roman empire and c. 1000. Montesquieu used the term in this sense in The Spirit of Laws (1748): i should think my work imperfect were i to pass over in silence an event which never again, perhaps, will happen; were i not to speak of
this may be due to the influence of Thierry, with whom the following passage was coauthored in 1814): “all the enthusiasm, the madness, the horrors of the French Revolution are parallel in the english Revolution.”18 in the mid-1820s, guizot dismissed as “superficial and frivolous” attempts to distinguish the english and French Revolutions: “Produced by the same causes, the decay of the feudal aristocracy, the church, and royalty, they both labored at the same work.” His final judgment was that
particular. Perry anderson, by contrast, has argued that the concept of bourgeois revolution “was essentially constructed through a retro-projection whose model was the proletarian revolution, implying the idea that the structure of the bourgeois revolution would be homologous with what was known—or thought to be known—of proletarian revolutions.”32 This is nearer to the truth, but where did the model of the proletarian revolution come from in the first place? The answer again is the French