How Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching
Marie K. Norman
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
Praise for How Learning Works
"How Learning Works is the perfect title for this excellent book. Drawing upon new research in psychology, education, and cognitive science, the authors have demystified a complex topic into clear explanations of seven powerful learning principles. Full of great ideas and practical suggestions, all based on solid research evidence, this book is essential reading for instructors at all levels who wish to improve their students' learning."
—Barbara Gross Davis, assistant vice chancellor for educational development, University of California, Berkeley, and author, Tools for Teaching
"This book is a must-read for every instructor, new or experienced. Although I have been teaching for almost thirty years, as I read this book I found myself resonating with many of its ideas, and I discovered new ways of thinking about teaching."
—Eugenia T. Paulus, professor of chemistry, North Hennepin Community College, and 2008 U.S. Community Colleges Professor of the Year from The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and the Council for Advancement and Support of Education
"Thank you Carnegie Mellon for making accessible what has previously been inaccessible to those of us who are not learning scientists. Your focus on the essence of learning combined with concrete examples of the daily challenges of teaching and clear tactical strategies for faculty to consider is a welcome work. I will recommend this book to all my colleagues."
—Catherine M. Casserly, senior partner, The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
"As you read about each of the seven basic learning principles in this book, you will find advice that is grounded in learning theory, based on research evidence, relevant to college teaching, and easy to understand. The authors have extensive knowledge and experience in applying the science of learning to college teaching, and they graciously share it with you in this organized and readable book."
—From the Foreword by Richard E. Mayer, professor of psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara; coauthor, e-Learning and the Science of Instruction; and author, Multimedia Learning
shown that deeply held misconceptions often persist despite direct instructional interventions (Ram, Nersessian, & Keil, 1997; Gardner & Dalsing, 1986; Gutman, 1979; Confrey, 1990). For example, Stein and Dunbar conducted a study (described in Dunbar, Fugelsang, & Stein, 2007) in which they asked college students to write about why the seasons changed, and then assessed their relevant knowledge via a multiple choice test. After finding that 94 percent of the students in their study had
students’ overall level of preparedness. Another way to expose students’ prior knowledge is by administering a concept inventory. Concept inventories are ungraded tests, typically in a multiple-choice format, that are designed to include incorrect answers that help reveal common misconceptions. Developing a concept inventory of your own can be time-intensive, so check the Internet to see whether there are inventories already available in your discipline that would suit your needs. A number of
systematically account for all the developmental changes students experience through the college years. He groups them in seven dimensions, which he calls vectors. They build on each other cumulatively: • Developing competence. This dimension involves intellectual, physical, and interpersonal competence. Intellectual competence includes everything from developing study skills appropriate for college to developing sophisticated critical thinking and problem-solving abilities. Physical competence
argument, and there was only weak evidence to support what I inferred was her argument. As we walked across campus toward my office, she began explaining that she was a “gifted” writer who had always received As on her high school English papers. She made clear to me that there must be some mistake in this paper’s grade because her mother, a high school English teacher, had read the paper over the weekend and thought it was wonderful. Melanie admitted that she had started this assignment the
information session as a means of encouraging their high school “pen pals” (who, in fact, did not exist). Follow-up assessments found that students in the “malleable” intelligence session showed more change in their views on intelligence and endorsed the “malleable” perspective more strongly than the “fixed” group and another control group. Over time, the malleable group showed an even stronger endorsement of the malleable position whereas the fixed and control groups did not. Perhaps most