Historical Dictionary of the European Union (Historical Dictionaries of International Organizations)
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Over half a century old and continuing to grow in strength and authority, the European Union consists of 25 member states―with more on the waiting list―and a population of 450 million people. Its influence in foreign and domestic affairs and human rights and law reaches far beyond its earlier fields of trade and politics. From the initial ideas about integration leading to the Treaty of Paris and the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community to the current reflection on the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, the Historical Dictionary of the European Union encompasses the most basic elements of the EU and the components that have emerged as a result of them.
Through the use of maps, photographs, a list of acronyms, a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on topics such as leaders, personalities, institutions, enlargements, member states, internal policies, external relations, basic theories, treaties, and law, this dictionary tells a clear and complete story about the European Union that will assist those with greater interest in understanding it.
was an influential document in the elaboration of the Single European Act, which indeed included the goal of completing the single market by the end of 1992. Adopting more of a pro-European integration attitude during his tenure in the European Commission, Prime Minister Thatcher did not reappoint Cockfield for a second term. Baron Cockfield currently sits as a life peer in the House of Lords, a position he has held since 1978. COHESION POLICY. Unique to European-style integration, the cohesion
ECOFIN is a key element of EMU and as such assists in, among other associated obligations, establishing guidelines and coordinating macroeconomic policies. Since 2002, ECOFIN has also been responsible for the European Union’s budget. ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION (EMU). The international economic crises of the early 1970s prompted European leaders to discuss the completion of EMU by 1980, a goal incorporated in the 1971 Werner Report but that was ultimately unattainable. It was not until several
Framework decisions are used as a guideline for the convergence of laws and regulations between the member states in areas of JHA. The European Commission or a member state may propose a framework decision, which must be agreed upon unanimously and becomes binding on the member states once adopted. 06-137 Dict.qxd 104 • 6/7/06 10:59 AM Page 104 FRANCE FRANCE. Marking the beginning of European-style integration, on 9 May 1950, French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman proposed the pooling of
relative proximity to the European Union (EU), Iceland has never applied for membership in the EU, largely because of its large fishing industry. Iceland did, however, join the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) in 1970 and remains a member of this organization. As a member of EFTA Iceland has access to the EU’s single market through the European Economic Area, an agreement negotiated 06-137 Dict.qxd 122 • 6/7/06 10:59 AM Page 122 IMMIGRATION POLICY between the EU and all of the EFTA
Irish accession negotiations were also suspended. It was not until de Gaulle’s retirement in 1969 that the French government lifted its objection and the accession process could resume. On 10 May 1972, 83 percent of Irish voters supported EC membership in a national referendum. Ireland, Denmark, and the UK represent the member states of the first EC enlargement, joining on 1 January 1973. Despite Ireland’s generally positive outlook toward European integration, it has delayed two treaty