Historical Dictionary of International Organizations (Historical Dictionaries of International Organizations)
Michael G. Schechter
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One of the most pervasive phenomena that distinguish the early 21st century is the prevalence of international organizations (IOs). There are IOs in virtually every sector: political, economic, trade, social, educational, scientific, defense, and so forth. Some IOs are restricted to clearly defined activities and closely controlled by their members; others just grow and grow, moving into new sections and becoming more powerful in some ways than their members.
The second edition of Historical Dictionary of International Organizations provides a comprehensive overview of the major international organizations, both intergovernmental and international intergovernmental, of the 20th and 21st centuries. While the emphasis is on organizations that continue to operate today, important organizations that have ceased to exist are also included. This reference includes a chronology, an introductory essay, and over 700 cross-referenced dictionary entries on the organizations, significant leaders, pioneers, founders and members.
bank has shown increased attention to projects with a direct impact on the lives of African citizens, such as water supply and food security projects. BANQUE CENTRALE DES ETATS D’AFRIQUE CENTRALE (BCEAC) (CENTRAL BANK OF THE CENTRAL AFRICAN STATES). This organization, based in Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of Congo, was established in 1972. It serves as the exclusive 22 • BANQUE DE DÉVELOPPEMENT DES ETATS D’AFRIQUE CENTRALE issuing house for currency circulated within the members of the
ecological consequences of unrestrained economic development of economically linked countries. Their concerns have broadened over time, including consideration of such issues as governability. Their COLLECTIVE SELF-DEFENSE • 37 most famous publication and project to date is probably Limits to Growth. See also ENVIRONMENT. COCOA PRODUCERS’ ALLIANCE (COPAL). Established under the terms of the Abidjan Charter of 20 January 1962, COPAL now counts among its members those who produce almost 90
agricultural import rules. The most significant differences are between developed countries led by the European Union (EU), the United States, and Japan and the major developing countries led mainly by India and Brazil. There are also considerable differences between the EU and the United States over their respective agricultural subsidies. DOMESTIC JURISDICTION. One of the basic principles included in its charter forbids the United Nations (UN)“to intervene in matters which are essentially
Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, and Finland—adopted the European Union’s single currency, the euro. Five other EU member states have joined the euro area since its inception: Greece in 2001, Slovenia in 2007, Cyprus and Malta in 2008, and Slovakia in 2009. The area is set to expand further as many EU member states currently outside the euro area are preparing to join at some point in the future. EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR THE SAFETY OF AIR NAVIGATION (EUROCONTROL). Established in December 1960 but
BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT multilateral system of payments arranged among socialist countries on the basis of “collective currency” (that is, as a transferable ruble). It also worked and works to promote economic cooperation and growth among member countries, its major function after the introduction of market mechanisms, to varying degrees, in its member countries. The current membership includes Bulgaria, Cuba, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, Russia,