HarperCollins Bible Dictionary - Revised & Updated
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The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary, revised and updated edition, is the most complete, up-to-date, and accessible guide for the study of the Bible available today. With more than 4,000 lively, informative, and reader-friendly entries, this essential reference book provides all the information you need to understand the Bible.
Whether you are a pastor, layperson, or a student of scripture, you will find every important name, place, and subject that makes Bible study come to life. From Aaron to Zurishaddai, here are all the people, events, and ideas of biblical times.
This third edition continues in the rich tradition of its predecessors but has been thoroughly updated and revised by a new editorial team under the direction of the premier international scholarly body, the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL). More than half the articles in this book are new, and several dozen charts and tables have also been added as well as updates on recent archaeological discoveries.
Over 200 contributors to the HarperCollins Bible Dictionary, from a diverse group of authorities, represent an ecumenical and non-biased viewpoint of scripture from different positions—Roman Catholic, Jewish, mainline Protestant, and evangelical. Filled with explanations of biblical beliefs, language, and insights into the culture and customs of the people who lived in biblical times, this resource will help anyone interested in scripture to more fully appreciate the meaning and message of the Bible.
leader of the tribe of Dan who was in charge of apportioning the land within the tribe (Num. 34:22). 2 A Levite, a descendant of Aaron and ancestor of Ezra (1 Chron. 6:5; Ezra 7:4). Bul. See calendar. bull, an animal important in ancient Near Eastern religions, including that of Israel. In Egypt, Apis the bull was thought to impart fertility; in one ritual a bull was driven over fields to increase their yield. Apis also came to be the herald of the national god Ptah and occasionally his
tree” to signify that such a person was accursed by God in Deut. 21:22–23. This text is applied in several of the Dead Sea Scrolls to the act of crucifixion, and Paul also makes that connection in Gal. 3:13. In the NT, references to “the cross” function primarily as a shorthand way of referring to the death of Jesus and its consequences. Paul says that the “message about the cross” is foolishness to those who are perishing, but the power of God to those who are being saved (1 Cor. 1:18). This
stranger, Deut. 10:19; and alien, Lev. 19:34). In the NT: In preaching the advent of God’s kingdom, Jesus underscores both the possibility and the necessity of repentance (Mark 1:14–15). Thus, future hope becomes a motivation for acting mercifully and responsibly in the present. At points it may seem that Jesus is thinking mostly about the future: he makes moral acts a strict requirement for admission to the kingdom (e.g., Matt. 25:31–46; Mark 10:24–25), threatens persons with the final judgment
Mount Gilboa. Here the Israelites encamped before battling the Philistines (1 Sam. 29). It was also one of the towns over which Ishbaal, son of Saul, briefly reigned (2 Sam. 2:9). Ahab had a royal residence here (1 Kings 18:45, 46), and Naboth’s vineyard, which Jezebel plotted to obtain, was beside the palace (1 Kings 21). At Jezreel, Jehu murdered Jezebel (2 Kings 9:30–37) and the rest of the house of Ahab, putting an end to the Omride dynasty (10:1–11). See also Gilboa. 2 The Valley of
Kings, and Kings was the major source for the revisionist history found in 2 Chronicles. Crucial figures and institutions in 1 and 2 Kings that would prove to be particularly influential on religious, literary, and cultural history include the figure of Solomon, who established the perspectives and practices of wisdom in Israel; the temple in Jerusalem and its related institutions that were foundational for Israel’s religion; Elijah, who was the prototype of the courageous and countercultural