Handbook of Positive Psychology
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Psychology has long been enamored of the dark side of human existence, rarely exploring a more positive view of the mind. What has psychology contributed, for example, to our understanding of the various human virtues? Regrettably, not much. The last decade, however, has witnessed a growing movement to abandon the exclusive focus on the negative. Psychologists from several subdisciplines are now asking an intriguing question: "What strengths does a person employ to deal effectively with life?"
The Handbook of Positive Psychology provides a forum for a more positive view of the human condition. In its pages, readers are treated to an analysis of what the foremost experts believe to be the fundamental strengths of humankind. Both seasoned professionals and students just entering the field are eager to grasp the power and vitality of the human spirit as it faces a multitude of life challenges. The Handbook is the first systematic attempt to bring together leading scholars to give voice to the emerging field of positive psychology.
beneﬁcial in other ways. Speciﬁcally, I have argued that these broadened mindsets carry indirect and long-term adaptive beneﬁts because broadening builds enduring personal resources. Take play as an example. Speciﬁc forms of chasing play evident in juveniles of a species— like running into a ﬂexible sapling or branch and catapulting oneself in an unexpected direction—are reenacted in adults of that species exclusively during predator avoidance (Dolhinow, 1987). Such correspondences between
experimental induction of emotional approach, and qualitative studies of coping processes. Longitudinal research designs that control for initial levels on dependent variables (e.g., psychological adjustment) also are essential to evaluate coping through emotional approach because beneﬁts of these coping processes may emerge weeks or months after their initiation (Schut et al., 1997; McQueeny et al., 1997). Findings to date demonstrate that, although correlated, emotional processing and
randomly sample everyday experience. It yielded several reﬁnements of the model of experiential states and dynamics in which the ﬂow concept is embedded. The ESM and the theoretical advances that it made possible are discussed in the section on measuring ﬂow. During the 1980s and 1990s, the ﬂow concept also was embraced by researchers studying optimal experience (e.g., leisure, play, sports, art, intrinsic motivation) and by researchers and practitioners working in contexts where fostering
possible claimants. Because attention is recognized as a precious commodity, others compete aggressively to attract, control, and direct it. Elsewhere, we have reﬂected on the amorality of ﬂow, acknowledging that it is possible for people to seek ﬂow in activities that are neutral or destructive to the self and/or the culture (e.g., Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 1978; Csikszentmihalyi & Rathunde, 1993). As the ﬂow concept is taken up in applied settings, it becomes increasingly clear that ﬂow
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