Global Environmental Change and International Governance (Nelson A. Rockefeller Series in Social Science & Public Policy)
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As humankind continues to exploit the earth's limited resources, issues like ozone depletion, climate change, fresh and salt water pollution, and diminishment of biodiversity are no longer just local problems, but global threats. Eleven essays look at existing international regimes, those rules of the game that define the character of social practices, and the successes and failures of these systems in curbing large-scale environmental degradation. Based on regime theory, the authors evaluate ongoing negotiations about environmental institution building and provide unique insights into forces shaping the attitudes of northern developed countries and southern newly developing ones. Writers from both perspectives illustrate the social, political, and economic complexities inherent in reconciling emerging northern concerns for relieving pressure on the earth's physical and biological systems with increasingly insistent southern demands for restructuring of economic imbalances to meet reasonable standards of equity.
Agriculture."2 Kautilya's concern with rainfall measurements was twofold. In the first place, lands were taxed according to the amount of rain they received every year, rain being considered to represent agricultural productivity or, in other words, income. It was, of course, also imperative that the superintendent of agriculture have a good understanding of rainfall patterns so that plantings would yield the greatest possible crops. It is interesting to note that in the North, rain gauges were
with annual per capita income of less than U.S. $1,070. Its credits have a ten-year grace period, and are due to be paid back over thirty to forty years. The International Finance Corporation (IFC), which was established in 1956 to promote growth of the private sector in developing countries. The World Bank identifies, researches, and plans projects, and then acts as lead bank in financing them, mainly through borrowing in capital marketsthat is to say, from other banks and financial
South, including wrong or wrongly defined aims, and conflicts of interest that ignore the fact that the South and North are intrinsically one in a biosphere sense, and that enrichment of the North while destroying the assets of the South that have created so much of the North's wealth eventually impoverishes the North as well. Conclusions and Recommendations How Effectiveness Can Be Increased within Existing Institutions Reform of WTO. The argument within WTO now is no longer about
to say that the necessary price increases are easily realizable: goods that we now take for granted will cease to be affordable for most people. Changes of this sort will only become acceptable after major shifts in popular thinking. New social policies will have to replace current goalsfor example, consumer egalitarianismthat depend on a narrower view of the environment and its use. In the years ahead, as we learn the real cost of the world's goods, social and material divisions that we now
meeting of the COB was held November 28, 1994, to December 9, 1994, in Nassau, the Bahamas. Key implementation decisions at that meeting included the adoption of the medium-term work plan, establishment of the clearing-house mechanism, and the establishment of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice. The Second COB is scheduled for November 1995. The increase in conventions concerned with wild fauna, flora, and their habitats in recent years is undoubtedly a