Four Lectures on Marxism (Monthly Review Press Classic Titles)
Paul M. Sweezy
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One of the twentieth century’s foremost Marxian economists discusses the dialectical method, the contradictions of capitalism, and the future of Marxism.
second and third volumes in the decade after Marx' death. Marx was the first economist to recognize and theorize thi process that turned out to be so crucial in the succeeding century, he saw clearly its roots in the greater profitability of large unit compared to small, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, i the capacity of the corporate form (then called the joint stoc company) to assemble masses of capital for projects like railroads which were far beyond the means of individual'
but is at least as fierce as it was in Marx's time. W hat have changed are the methods and consequences of competition. This subjecr is treated at greater length in Appendix B to this chapter. 42 Paul M. Sweezy of supply and demand. This reasoning in support of the theory o value was, of course, not original with Marx: it was part and parce of classical political economy going back to Adam Smith and eve earlier.* At a certain point in the unfolding of the concentration/ceo realization
penetrating its power struc ture, playing off some chiefs and potentates against others, estab lishing effective overall colonial rule, and imposing on the local population both direct economic and indirect political forms of exploitation. India under British rule was the classic example of this pattern, but it was also widely practiced not only by the British but also by the Dutch and the French elsewhere in Asia, in parts of Africa, and in the Middle East. (3) We come now to the final
its successful realization, though of course countries like Germany and Japan, which were relatively late in embarking on the development process, could learn (as well as borrow) from their predecessors and in this way avoid mistakes and shorten the 76 Paul M. Sweezy time required. But those countries that, to use Samir Amin's phrase, "imported" the industrial revolution without laying the necessary agricultural foundation have succeeded only in creating new forms of dependence. * The second
and last terms can be, and indeed normally are expected to be, quantitatively equal, i.e., to have the same exchange value. The rationale of the operation lies not in the realm of exchange value but in that of use value: for simple commodity producers, the C at the end has greater use value than the C at the beginning, and it is this increase in use value that motivates their behavior. Nothing of the sort exists in the M-C-M case. The first and last terms are both money, qualitatively