Exzerpte und Notizen, Sommer 1844 bis Anfang 1847 (Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe)
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The volume contains excerpts and notes that Marx made during the last months of his first stay in Paris (October 1843 to February 1845) and in the first months of his stay in Brussels (February 1845 to March 1848). Also, it contains Marx's personal notebook from the years 1844-47. Most of these materials have not been published previously.
The excerpts, from the works of thirty authors, document Marx's economic studies between the summer of 1844, when he drafted the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, and his first trip to England in July/August 1845. While he was still in Paris, Marx made excerpts from works of Boisguillebert, Law, and Lauderdale. In particular, Marx's excerpts from Boisguillebert and his comments on them are closely related to the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts.
The majority of the excerpts - six of the eight excerpt notebooks - date from the Brussels period. They are from general works on political economy (Storch, Rossi), books and articles on the situation of the working classes in various countries (Buret, Sismondi, La Sagra), books on the "machinery question" (Gasparin, Babbage, Ure), and works on the "History of Political Economy" (Pecchio, MacCulloch, Ganilh, Blanqui et al.). At that time Marx was primarily interested in the sources of public and private wealth, the causes of social differences, the role of private property, the emergence and development of class conflict, the nature of money, problem of defining value, and the concept of capital. As the French scholar Maximilien Rubel stated, these notebooks are especially important because they give detailed information about the intellectual sources of Marx's ideas during the months that he developed his materialistic theory of history, outlined for the first time in The German Ideology (1845/46). However, some of the excerpts published in the volume also reveal the sources of fundamental Marxian concepts developed only at a later time; e.g. it is from a book by Villegardelle that Marx took the idea that the proletarian revolution would have to "break" the bourgois state machine.
The contents of Marx's personal notebook from the years 1844-47 mainly consist of lists of books - books that Marx already owned or that had aroused his particular interest and that he planned to purchase and/or read. These lists represent an indispensable source of information regarding the wide range of Marx's reading at that time. Also, this notebook contains Marx's famous "Theses on Feuerbach", in which, according to Engels, "the brilliant germ of the new world view" was set down. They are published here for the first time in their original context.
The volume under review belongs to the second version of the complete works of Marx and Engels (acronym MEGA) undertaken since 1972. The first version of the MEGA was undertaken in the late twenties of the last century in the Soviet Union under the direction of David B. Riazanov, perhaps the most knowledgeable Marx scholar of the time, under whom the edition had attained the highest scholarly standard and textual exactitude. But soon he was destituted of his function by the regime. Subsequently arrested and condemned as a `conspirator' by the Stalinist show trial, he was executed in 1938. A new version of the MEGA started in 1972 with a `trial volume' (Probeband) of course under full party-state control through the Institute of Marxism-Leninism of the (ex)USSR and the GDR. This MEGA number 2 envisages four `sections': (1) works, articles, drafts of Marx and Engels, (2) Capital and the works preceding and preparatory to Capital, (3) correspondence, (4) notebooks, excerpt copy books, marginal comments made by the two authors. This otherwise ambitious and serious scholarly enterprise was, however, marred by its openly ideological orientation. Then, with the downfall of the `really (non) existing socialism,' the situation was radically changed. A total rearrangement for publishing MEGA was undertaken on the initiative of the Amsterdam Institute of Social History (IISG) with the establishment of the International Marx-Engels Foundation (IMES).
a t r i a r c h a l i s c h e n Z u s t a n d d e r Gesellschaft, a b e r e r h a t sie nicht g a n z a b s o r b i r t ; er wird n u r a u s g e ü b t sur le s u r p l u s des p r o d u i t s de c h a c u n et n o n sur ce q u i c o n s t i t u e son existence. Il laisse a u x richesses leur c a r a c tère essentiel de satisfaire a u x besoins de l ' h o m m e , et il n ' e m p ê c h e p o i n t q u e lorsqu'elles s'accroissent en q u a n t i t é , elles ne s'accroissent précisém e n t a u t a n
vergiessen u . o h n e a u s seinen S t a a t e n h e r a u s z u g e h n , s o n d e r n selbst d u r c h B e r e i c h e r u n g aller,] w o v o n er n o t h w e n d i g seinen 15 Theil h a b e n wird. V e r m i n d e r u n g v. 500 M i l l i o n e n jährlich; d i e s e l b e n biens seulement en fonds, t a n t réels,] c o m m e les terres, wie p a r accident, wie die charges, greff[es, péages et m o u l i n s allaient autrefois à 700 millions] jährlich: diese [Güter,] ||| w e n n sie n u r
liées qu'il ne p e u t y avoir de véritable accroissement d e richesse p o u r u n e n a t i o n q u e p a r l a p r o s p é r i t é d e t o u t e s d e u x ensemble, p. 107, 8. D e r commerce intérieur ist de la plus g r a n d e i m p o r t a n c e p o u r l'accroiss e m e n t de la richesse p u b l i q u e , p. 108. N o t r e o p i n i o n est d o n c q u e ces trois industries ( F a b r i k , A c k e r b a u , H a n d e l ) s o n t tellement liées et se p r ê t e n t m u t u e l l e m e n t un
e m a n q u e n t au m a r c h é , m a i s p a r c e qu'elle n ' a p a s le m o y e n de les acheter, p. 90. »le p h i l o s o p h e é c o n o m i s t e , en p r o m e n a n t ses r e g a r d s sur t o u t e s les richesses sociales, ne p e u t j a m a i s dire: cet objet est un capital, cet a u t r e 129 Karl Marx · Brüsseler Hefte 1845 • Heft 1 est un revenu, sans q u e q u e l q u ' u n soit p r ê t à lui r é p o n d r e : ce q u e v o u s n o m m e z l à capital est m o n revenu; c e q u e
n t q u i a l ' i m p o r t a n c e d ' u n e terrible r é v o l u t i o n : elle a r e m 25 placé le travail en famille p a r le t r a v a i l en f a b r i q u e ; elle a b r u s q u e m e n t i n t e r r o m p u le silence et la p a i x de la vie domestique, p o u r lui s u b s t i t u e r l'agitation et le b r u i t de la vie en commun, p. 556. t o u t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n de s e n t i m e n t s et d'intelligence était r o m p u e e n t r e e u x , et ils n ' é t a i e n t p l u s les u