Essentials of Assessing, Preventing, and Overcoming Reading Difficulties (Essentials of Psychological Assessment)
David A. Kilpatrick
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Practical, effective, evidence-based reading interventions that change students' lives
Essentials of Understanding and Assessing Reading Difficulties is a practical, accessible, in-depth guide to reading assessment and intervention. It provides a detailed discussion of the nature and causes of reading difficulties, which will help develop the knowledge and confidence needed to accurately assess why a student is struggling. Readers will learn a framework for organizing testing results from current assessment batteries such as the WJ-IV, KTEA-3, and CTOPP-2. Case studies illustrate each of the concepts covered. A thorough discussion is provided on the assessment of phonics skills, phonological awareness, word recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Formatted for easy reading as well as quick reference, the text includes bullet points, icons, callout boxes, and other design elements to call attention to important information.
Although a substantial amount of research has shown that most reading difficulties can be prevented or corrected, standard reading remediation efforts have proven largely ineffective. School psychologists are routinely called upon to evaluate students with reading difficulties and to make recommendations to address such difficulties. This book provides an overview of the best assessment and intervention techniques, backed by the most current research findings.
- Bridge the gap between research and practice
- Accurately assess the reason(s) why a student struggles in reading
- Improve reading skills using the most highly effective evidence-based techniques
Reading may well be the most important thing students are taught during their school careers. It is a skill they will use every day of their lives; one that will dictate, in part, later life success. Struggling students need help now, and Essentials of Understanding and Assessing Reading Difficulties shows how to get these students on track.
numerous studies regarding kindergarten instruction that substantially reduced the number of struggling readers. The basic gist is that if you provide kindergarteners with (a) direct and explicit phonological awareness training, (b) ample letter-sound instruction, and (c) if you teach the connections between those two, you will substantially reduce the number of students struggling in reading at the end of first, second, and even later grades. To illustrate, Shapiro and Solity (2008) did explicit
instruction promotes word calling and compromises reading comprehension. Research has shown the opposite. Numerous studies have indicated that students who receive early systematic phonics instruction have better reading comprehension at the end of the second and third grades (Foorman, Francis, Fletcher, Schatschneider, & Mehta, 1998; NICHD, 2000). This is because they can more accurately read the words, and being able to read the words provides the oral language system with the input needed for
Their average timed and untimed word reading and spelling were each 92, and untimed nonsense word reading was 94 and untimed phonemic awareness was 93. However, their timed nonsense word reading, which is presumably a more valid index of their proficiency at phonic decoding (see Chapter 7), averaged 84 and their timed phonemic awareness, also likely to be a more valid index of their phonemic proficiency (see Chapter 6), was 81. In all, 94% had poor automatic (i.e., advanced) phonemic awareness
the sound structure of spoken words. Chapter 4 will detail the importance of phonological skills, ranging from the earliest stages of reading development (learning letter names and sounds) to the most advanced orthographic mapping skills in which new words are quickly and reliably added to the sight vocabulary. Every point in a child's development of word-level reading is affected by phonological awareness skills. It should therefore come as no surprise that children with difficulties in
for both listening comprehension and reading comprehension (Center, Freeman, Robertson, & Outhred, 1999; Johnson-Glenberg, 2000; Oakhill & Patel, 1991). Hulme and Snowling (2009) describe VSP skills as a factor in reading comprehension that deserves more attention. Figure 3.8 illustrates the relationship among the various components of linguistic comprehension within the expanded form of the simple view of reading. Students referred for reading comprehension difficulties that cannot be accounted