Ending the Crisis of Capitalism or Ending Capitalism?
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and national popular experiences which are at the origin of the problems of the contemporary world. I have analysed the projects of this first wave in terms of three families of social and political advances: the welfare state in the imperialist West (the historical compromise between capital and labour of the period), the actually existing socialisms (Soviet and Maoist) and the national popular systems of the Bandung era. The analysis is made in terms of their complementarity and conflictuality
democracy (which has nothing to do with the ‘popular democracies’ of Eastern Europe), making real social and democratic advances that define a stage in the long transition to democratic socialism. The abolition of the private property of land and the guarantee of equal access to it for everyone constitute a major advance. The implementation of communes, of the collective management of agricultural production, of small, associated industries and of public services (schools, clinics, etc) could
open up the market in agricultural land. It is very clear that those supporting this are the rich peasants (if not agro-business), who want to increase their holdings. The management of this system of access to land for the peasants has been ensured until now by the state and the party together. It may well be that this is on account of the village councils that have been genuinely re-elected and because there is no other way to mobilise the opinion of the majority and reduce the intrigues of the
world environment) for programmes benefiting the peoples of the planet, especially the most vulnerable. But, precisely because this initiative started off within the United Nations, the western diplomats have been busy – it is the least that can be said – in hindering its development (one might call it sabotage). The drawing up of a global view of aid cannot be delegated to the OECD, the World Bank or the European Union. This is the responsibility of the United Nations and of that body alone. It
initiated to leave behind the night of domination by the old, colonial and semi-colonial imperialism. I have tried here, inspired largely by lessons drawn from my readings of Marx, of historical Marxists and others, to disentangle the new muddle of the social struggles, the power conflicts and their ideological representations. What is new here about the state, politics and democracy as regards the first advances of Marx in these fields? There are the old and the permanent elements that are