Encyclopedia of Early Christianity: Second Edition (Garland Reference Library of the Humanities)
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First published in 1997. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Acts of John Gnostic legends (second or third century) about the apostle John. Some of the exoteric traditions in the Acts of John were known to Clement of Alexandria (Adumb. in 1 Joh. 1.1), but the references are too slight and varied to guarantee a second-century date for the Acts. It is part of the fourth-century Manichaean collection of apocryphal Acts. Eusebius (H.E. 3.25.6) mentions it; Epiphanius (Haer. 47.1.5) says it was used by the Encratites. One textual puzzle of the Greek version
theological politics of Athanasius against the Arians. His goal was the unity of the church, and he therefore took steps against the Donatists in Africa in 347, although he proved unable to suppress them. The rebel Magnentius killed him near the Pyrenees in 350. Robert M. Grant See also Constantine the Great; Constantius II Constantine the Great (ca. 285–337) Roman emperor (306–337). Constantine was the son and heir of the Roman co-emperor Constantius I Chlorus and Helena, a woman of low rank
physeōs), one should also note John 10:34, where Jesus is presented as quoting Psalms 82:6 (LXX 81:6): “I said: ‘You are gods.’” Sporadic beginnings of the terminology and doctrine of divinization are found in the second century. Justin in his Dialogue with Trypho 124 quotes Psalms 82:6 in connection with becoming children of God, and likely he also had John 10:34 in mind. The Epistle to Diognetus 10 affirms that human beings can become gods by imitating God’s love for humankind. In Theophilus,
their memory was kept alive is certain. Some of the heretical Jewish Christian groups became syncretistic in their beliefs, combining traditional Jewish customs and practices with Gnostic beliefs and exotic religious notions. The Elkesaites were one such group; they blended elements of Judaism, Gnosticism, magic, and astrology (Hippolytus, Haer. 9.8–12; 10.25). That these groups should disappear is not surprising, since they did not fit either into posttemple Judaism or into the emerging
to whom Muhammad first preached Islam. In many ways, Islam was a direct challenge to the earlier spread of Christianity among the Arabs in the fifth and sixth centuries. Sidney H. Griffith Bibliography B.M. Metzger, The Early Versions of the New Testament (Oxford: Clarendon, 1977), pp. 257–268; J.S. Trimingham, Christianity Among the Arabs in Pre-Islamic Times (London: Longman, 1979); G.W. Bowersock, Roman Arabia (Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1983); I. Shahid, Rome and the Arabs: A Prolegomenon to