Culture and International History (Explorations in Culture and International History)
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Combining the perspectives of 18 international scholars from Europe and the United States with a critical discussion of the role of culture in international relations, this volume introduces recent trends in the study of Culture and International History. It systematically explores the cultural dimension of international history, mapping existing approaches and conceptual lenses for the study of cultural factors and thus hopes to sharpen the awareness for the cultural approach to international history among both American and non-American scholars.
The first part provides a methodological introduction, explores the cultural underpinnings of foreign policy, and the role of culture in international affairs by reviewing the historiography and examining the meaning of the word culture in the context of foreign relations. In the second part, contributors analyze culture as a tool of foreign policy. They demonstrate how culture was instrumentalized for diplomatic goals and purposes in different historical periods and world regions. The essays in the third part expand the state-centered view and retrace informal cultural relations among nations and peoples. This exploration of non-state cultural interaction focuses on the role of science, art, religion, and tourism. The fourth part collects the findings and arguments of part one, two, and three to define a roadmap for further scholarly inquiry. A group of" commentators" survey the preceding essays, place them into a larger research context, and address the question "Where do we go from here?" The last and fifth part presents a selection of primary sources along with individual comments highlighting a new genre of resources scholars interested in culture and international relations can consult.
ahead in the future.… [I]t can turn a battery of antiaircraft guns on the calculated spot and shoot down the airplane; and it can then “perceive,” predict, and shoot down the next.… Man made machines actually operating or designable today have devices which function as “sense organs,” furnish “interpretations” of stimuli, perform acts of recognition, have “memory,” “learn” from experience, carry out motor actions, are subject to conflicts and jamming, make decisions between conflicting
the Club of Rome mentioned above are left out in this context because these studies primarily focused on more traditional patterns of the industrial society. Nevertheless, it is important to note that these studies were strongly and even more explicitly committed to a cybernetic approach on the methodological level. They used quantitative methods of computer simulation based on cybernetic mathematical models; see Moll, From Scarcity to Sustainability, 151-160. 19. See Herman Kahn and Anthony
the Law of Nature Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns. Philadelphia: Johnson and Co., 1863. Vitoria, Francisco de. Political Writings. Ed. Anthony Pagden and Jeremy Lawrence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Walker, Rob. “The Concept of Culture in the Theory of International Relations.” In Chay, Culture and International Relations, 3-17. Waltz, Kenneth. Man, the State and War: A Theoretical Analysis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1959. _____. Theory of
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1946, 6: 676-678 (hereafter FRUS, year, volume). 11. See Overseas Information Programs of the United States, Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, 83rd Cong., 1st sess., 1486. 12. Ibid. 13. The Women in Communist Countries, USIA Pamphlet Files, United States Information Agency Archives, Washington, D.C. (hereafter referred to as USIAA). 04-Belmonte 11/5/03 8:00 PM Page 91 A Family Affair? 91 14.
and economic motives as well as by the propulsions of scholarship. And it had a long history to build on. Back under the Roman Empire, students traveled to educate themselves at the schools of Athens and Alexandria. The first heyday of large-scale student mobility across frontiers coincided with the formation of medieval European universities. From the twelfth Century onward, students from all over the continent migrated to attend nascent universities in Northern Italy and Paris. Long before the