David F. Bjorklund
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A comprehensive book supported by extensive research studies and data, Bjorklund's text presents the broadest coverage of topics in cognitive development. Unlike other books, Bjorklund shows readers how developmental function can help explain individual differences in cognition by covering both the typical pattern of change in thinking observed over time and the individual differences in children's thinking in infancy and childhood. A major theme of this book is the continuous transaction between the embodied child embedded in a social world: although a child is born prepared to make some sense of the world, his or her mind is also shaped by forces in the physical and social environment.
expertise and IQ were similar for the children at each of the three grade levels and are summarized in Figure 1-8 (averaged over grade). As would be expected, memory performance was better for the soccer experts than for the soccer novices. However, the researchers reported no difference in performance between the academically successful learners and the unsuccessful ones. That is, being a good learner (and having a high IQ) did not Five “Truths” of Cognitive Development 27 18 Successful
Most college students today, and certainly nearly all who will follow them, are digital natives, people who grew up with digital media and who take these media for granted. As illustrated by the story that opened this chapter, most members of Ashleigh’s parents’ and grandparents’ generation have learned to use the new media, but it rarely comes easy to them. For people who did not grow up with it, using the new media is like using a second language, whereas for most people under 30 today, it is
“Da ball, yeah,” his mother confirmed. “Pull the lid,” she encouraged, and demonstrated pulling on the knob. “Can you pull?” Sandy put his hand on hers, and they pulled the lid off together triumphantly. “What’s inside?” asked his mother, and took the peewee out. “Who is that?” Sandy reached for the lid, and his mother provided running commentary. “OK, you put the lid back on.” And when Sandy exclaimed “Oh!” his mother repeated “Oh!” after him. When Sandy lost interest, his mother asked with mock
New York: Guilford. This book presents an authoritative yet highly readable account of research and theory from the sociocultural 99 perspective. The first set of chapters discusses mainly theory, whereas the second set of chapters presents sociocultural research in areas of “higher mental functions,” including the acquisition of knowledge, memory, problem solving, and planning. Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The story of success. New York: Little, Brown & Company. Popular writer Malcolm
more general bias to attend to faces. In Chapter 1, I discussed research that showed babies initially have a weak bias to attend to faces, which becomes stronger with age and experience. For example, whereas both adults and 6-month-old infants process upright and inverted faces differently, revealing what appears to be an appreciation of what the proper orientation of faces is “supposed” to be, adults show this bias only for human faces, and 6-month-olds show it for both human and monkey faces