Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, Volume 1
Karl Marx, Ben Fowkes, Ernest Mandel
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
This version has been carefully and lovingly OCR'd (using ClearScan) from the best available scanned version. I have also added the full table of contents (as PDF bookmarks). I tried to get it as small as possible but the underlining messed up the ClearScan, adding at least 50 MB of useless data. I was able to get Vol. 3 (coming soon) to 53 MB and it is the same length. If you can point me to a better scan, I'll improve this one. Regardless, it is an excellent copy for those who need to cite pages, and are interested in this translation.
This 1867 study—one of the most influential documents of modern times—looks at the relationship between labor and value, the role of money, and the conflict between the classes.
roU:giT,ly p/;; histori6i(IS]::'t· ;:;< • -- I. Starting point: elementary form o f capitalist wealth: the com�· modity 31. Friedrich Engels' review of Marx's A Contribution to the Critique_ a/ Political Economy. See appendix to volume of that name, London, 1971, p; 225. · · 36 Introduction (a) the commodity and the realization of its exchange-value, or the process ofexchange (b) the process of exchange and the means of exchange: money (c) money, necessary mediator of the process of
animal physio logy, it can be only a by-product of the development of the anatomical understanding of specific given species. In. the same way, Marx's theory of historical materialism does indeed include comparative economic analysis -for example an examination of the evolution of human labour, h1,1man labour productivity, social surplus product and economic growth, from slave society through feudalism to capitalism. But such comparison can result only from the analysis of specific modes of
labour-power necessary to produce its skill. In other words, each hour of skilled labour can be considered as an hour of un skilled labour multiplied by a coefficient dependent on this cost of schooling.75 Marx speaks in this context of'composite labour' as against'simple labour'. The skill, by analogy,-can be compared to an additional tool, whic}l is in itself not value-producing, but which transfers part of its own value into the value of the product pro duced by the skilled worker. 74_
economically by the quarrel between industrial capital and aristocratic landed property. This latter quarrel was concealed in France by the antagonism between small-scale, fragmented property and big landownership, but in England it broke out openly after the passing of the Corn Laws. The litera ture of political economy in England at this time calls to mind the economic' storm and stress period' which in France followed the death of Dr Quesnay, *-but only as an Indian summer reminds us of
a good Englishman, to keep a set of books. His stock-book .. contains a catalogue of the useful ob jects he possesses, of the various operations necessary for their production, and finally of the labour-time that specific quantities of these products have on average cost him. All the relations between Robinson and these objects that form his self-created wealth are here so simple and transparent that even Mr Sedley Taylor* could understand them. And yet those relations contain all the essential