After Darwin: Animals, Emotions, and the Mind (Clio Medica)
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'What is emotion?' pondered the young Charles Darwin in his notebooks. How were the emotions to be placed in an evolutionary framework? And what light might they shed on human-animal continuities? These were among the questions Darwin explored in his research, assisted both by an acute sense of observation and an extraordinary capacity for fellow feeling, not only with humans but with all animal life. After Darwin: Animals, Emotions, and the Mind explores questions of mind, emotion and the moral sense which Darwin opened up through his research on the physical expression of emotions and the human-animal relation. It also examines the extent to which Darwin's ideas were taken up by Victorian writers and popular culture, from George Eliot to the Daily News. Bringing together scholars from biology, literature, history, psychology, psychiatry and paediatrics, the volume provides an invaluable reassessment of Darwin's contribution to a new understanding of the moral sense and emotional life, and considers the urgent scientific and ethical implications of his ideas today.
‘desiring or shunning’ derive from a ‘superior Principle’ or soul which must be immaterial because it has self-motion, while matter is ‘wholly and essentially passive’.77 37 Spencer Hildrop drew closely on a treatise by the French writer GuillaumeHyacinth Bougeant, whose Amusement philosophique sur le langage des bestes had been translated into English in 1739. He argued for animal sense from the behaviour of dogs (Darwin’s later appeal to the evidence offered by pet dogs was to join a long
understanding of life in the second half of the nineteenth century, it considers medical and popular contemporary responses to the Expression, its dialogue with the novel and other art forms, and the extent to which it became part of everyday culture. As Darwin’s science challenged boundaries between genus, Expression pulled at distinctions of genre, providing an important example of the deep reciprocity of science and culture.4 Expressemotions: Darwin’s Notebooks ‘What is Emotion’ wrote Darwin
kind’.36 Darwin’s Global Network Studying his infants and animals exhaustively, Darwin needed to go further afield for evidence of uniformity of expression. Though he read travel books,37 and began studying photographs, it was his global network of correspondents that would prove vital. They ranged from friends, neighbours, relations and fellow men of science to missionaries, entrepreneurs and government colonials.38 In the 1860s he formulated a list of queries as the basis of his method of
(1841).49 The following year Eliot was reading John William Draper’s Human Physiology, Statical and Dynamical (1856) aloud to Lewes during evenings in Jersey.50 They also owned Maudsley’s Body and Mind: An Enquiry into their Connection and Mutual Influence, Specially in Reference to Mental Disorders (1870) and his Physiology of Mind (1876), which Eliot marked in the margins.51 In 1875 Lewes wrote: ‘I am hard at work 144 George Eliot, G.H. Lewes, and Darwin on the ‘Physical Basis of Mind’ with
heroes’.29 If Darwin’s recommendation has become obscure, the source of the comparison, responsible for Sam Weller the ‘prince of heroes’, has not. Darwin is confident that Mrs Lyell will sympathise with his powers of discrimination regarding Dickens – another, after all, of the ‘forty thieves’ elected to the Athenæum in 1838. As Francis Darwin’s life and letters indicates, by 1838, Darwin had started to secure his place in the scientific elite, and to belong by sharing what he refers to, in a